Nayef R.F. Al-Rodhan, and Ambassador Gérard Stoudmann
Measures of security are also aimed at factors that deal with security issues, and often this means dealing with issues surrounding crime and justice. These measurements also look at whether or not individuals in a state are terrorized by the political structures within a country. This can mean whether torture is used, whether people fear random imprisonment, and whether or not politically motivated murders are common. Finally, the protection of civil liberties must also be maintained. The Political Terror Scale proposed by Linda Cornett and Mark Gibney29 looks at these issues as a way to measure the human rights situation in individual countries. This has important implications due to the security level it measures: that of whether or not the state works to protect its citizens from potentially harmful political leaders and institutions.
In both instances, the indices offer a glimpse into the security implications of globalization on issues related to security and stability. Our review of current indices led us to the development of indices that bring together the best each existing index has to offer in an attempt to create an index that can offer an umbrella framework that incorporates existing indices while including factors that may have been omitted when assessing security and stability from a number of perspectives. Furthermore, these indices take into consideration factors related to globalization, thus fully examining the relationship between globalization, security, and stability.
The five pillars of globalization that are presented in this book provide an encyclopedic reference for those wishing to understand the past, present, and trends of this modern-day force. Globalization is a term that has been used to encompass multiple aspects of politics, economics, society, military developments, and stability within the international system. An understanding of the historical roots of globalization, as well as the challenge of properly defining this term, provide the reader with a foundation to assess the impact of globalization on policy. The measures of the stability and security of the international system propose a more thorough examination of some key elements to predicting the future status quo of global cooperation. This book brings together the foundational elements of globalization that are an essential tool for understanding where globalization has come from, where it is now, and, more important, where it is headed and how these lessons can be used to promote global security and stability.
M. Cuddy-Keane argues that globalization, “although frequently hailed as a recent phenomenon, has been a long historical process.” See M. Cuddy-Keane, “Modernism, Geopolitics, Globalization,” Modernism/Modernity, Vol. 10, No. 3, p. 539. 2 The term globalization first appeared in Webster’s Dictionary in 1961, a point identified by Richard Kilminster in “Globalization as an Emergent Concept,” in A. Scot (ed.), The Limits of Globalization: Cases and Arguments (London: Routledge, 1997), p. 257. 3 Please see Chapter 2 of this book. 4 G. Ritzer, “The Globalization of Nothing,” SAIS Review, Vol. 23, No. 2, Summer/Fall 2003, pp. 189-200, p. 190.5 See M. Khor, 1995, as cited in J.A. Scholte, “The Globalization of World Politics,” in J. Baylis and S. Smith (eds.), The Globalization of World Politics, An Introduction to International
Relations (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), p. 15, and J. Neeraj, Globalisation or Recolonisation (Pune: Elgar, 2001), pp. 6-7, see http://www.globalizacija.com/doc_en/e0013glo. htm. These definitions also appear in the table of definitions (Table 1) in Chapter 2. 6 A. Sen, “Does Globalization Equal Westernization?,” The Globalist, March 25, 2002. 7 D. Held, A. McGrew, D. Goldblatt, and J. Perraton, Global Transformations, Politics, Economics and Culture (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999), p. 2. 8 R. Kiely and P. Marfleet, Globalisation and the Third World (London: Routledge, 1998), p. 3. 9 P. Kelly, “The Geographies and Politics of Globalization,” Progress in Human Geography, Vol. 23, No. 3, 1999, pp. 379-400, p. 389.10 D.O. Flynn and A. Giraldez, “Globalization Began in 1571,” in B. Gills and W. Thompson (eds.), Globalization and Global History (New York, Oxford: Routledge, 2006), p. 244. 11 K.H. O’Rourke, J.G. Williamson, “When Did Globalisation Begin?,” European Review of Economic History, Vol. 6, 2002, pp. 23-50, p. 23. 12 A.G. Frank, “A Theoretical Introduction to 5000 Years of World-System History,” Review, Vol. 13, No. 2, 1990, pp. 155-248, as cited in R.J. Holton, Globalization and the Nation-State (New York: Macmillan Press, 1998), p. 26. 13 There is evidence to suggest that in “1041-48 a Chinese alchemist named Pi Sheng appears to have conceived of movable type made of an amalgam of clay and glue hardened by baking,” Encyclopedia Britannica, Online Edition, http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-36831. 14 E. Eisenstein, The Printing Press as an Agent of Change (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979), p. 3.15 W.H. McNeill, A World History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), p. 295. 16 R. Findlay, “Globalization and the European Economy: Medieval Origins to the Industrial Revolution,” in H. Kierzkowski, Europe and Globalization (New York: Palgrave, 2002), p. 58. 17 T. Inoguchi and P. Bacon, “Sovereignties: Westphalian, Liberal and Anti-Utopian,” International Relations of the Asia-Pacific, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2001, pp. 285-304, p. 289. 18 P. Rich, “European Identity and the Myth of Islam: A Reassessment,” Review of International Studies, Vol. 25, 1999, pp. 435-451, p. 443. 19 For analysis of the way that this event impacted global security, see G. Herd and Nayef R.F. Al-Rodhan, “GCSP Policy Brief No.7: Danish Cartoons: A Symptom of Global Insecurity,” July 12, 2006, available at http://www.gcsp.ch/e/publications/Globalisation/Publications/index.htm. 20 W. Drye, “First Flight: How Wright Brothers Changed World,” National Geographic News, December 17, 2003. 21 “Europeans and Africans to Tackle Clandestine Immigration,” Deutsche Welle, July 11, 2006. 22 For the most recent information concerning the development of this program, see “Early Warning – From concept to action: The Conclusions of the Third International Conference on Early Warning,” March 27-29, 2006, Bonn, Germany, available at http://www.ewc3.org/upload/downloads/Early_warning_complete2.pdf. 23 G. Herd and Nayef R.F. Al-Rodhan, “GCSP Policy Brief No. 6: Oil, Ports, and Steel: Symptoms of Global Insecurity,” July 7, 2006, p. 3, available at http://www.gcsp.ch/e/publicatio ns/Globalisation/Publications/index.htm. 24 See “Measuring Globalization,” Foreign Policy, May/June 2005, pp. 52-60. 25 For a complete review of the variables and methods of this measurement, please consult the table in Chapter 5 of this book that looks at measures of stability, or see L. Briguglio, “Small Island Developing States and Their Economic Vulnerabilities,” World Development, Vol. 23, No. 9, 1995, pp. 1615-1632.26 For more information on the database and the variables and methodology employed, see http://www.iiss.org/publications/armed-conflict-database/ or Chapter 6 in this book. 27 See http://www.spacesecurity.org/ for more information on the index and the variables and methodology employed or Chapter 6 in this book.28 Ibid. 29 See L. Cornett and M. Gibney, “Tracking Terror: The Political Terror Scale 1980-2001,” available at http://www.humansecurityreport.info/background/Cornett-Gibney_Political_Terror_
Scale_1980-2001.pdf, and M. Gibney and M. Dalton, “The Political Terror Scale,” Policy Studies and Developing Nations, Vol. 4, 1996, pp. 73-84.